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  Your Guide to all those unknown fishing terms:
CS-3 is a carbon formation in a macromolecular structure with three covalent bonds to provide extreme strength and rigidity while also being light and perfectly balanced.
This is an exclusive feature of the Middy White Knuckle CX reels which allows for quite possibly the best oscillation available.
A cross between a Crucian and a Common Carp. More than 600 commercial fisheries in the UK have taken delivery of this hard-fighting fish since they were first bred 12 years ago, and it's a trend that shows no sign of slowing down. F1's have revolutionised fishing. They are the perfect fish for commercials - They feed all year round, don't grow too big and can't contract KHV. Some people call them 'Frankenstein carp' but they have helped to make many commercials what they are today.
HKD is a carbon process to ensure it will stay rigid and stable even in extreme summer temperatures up to 3800K (3502°C).
If you were to fish the 'margins', you would fish close to the inside edge of the lake, i.e. in the area directly in front of you. Margin poles are an example of a product that's specifically designed for this type of fishing.
On the Drop
A term used when fish are taking the bait as it drops down through the water at approx 2-5ft depth. It means you should set your rig with spaced light shot so that it drops the bait down slowly and not with heavy shot down the line.
A quiver tip (sometimes referred to simply as a 'quiver') is a fine tip that is spliced or screwed into the end of a rod. Because it is fine, it can bend quite easily and quiver when fish are taking the bait.
Shirt Button Style
A term used when the shot down the line below the float is spaced out equally, so it looks like shirt buttons. This allows the hook bait to drop down through the water more gradually.
Sink ratio
The density of an object determines whether it floats or sinks. An object will sink in fluid/water if it has a higher density than the fluid/water. Density is a calculation of mass divided by volume. Co-polymer has around a 19% higher density than water. So essentially it is, as a ratio (or 'sink ratio'), expressed as 1:1.19. Normal mono lines are around 8% higher density than water, expressed as 1:1.08. M-Tech carp commercial line from Middy is therefore more dense than standard mono and will sink better.
Spade End
A hook that is not attached with an eye/ring. Instead, it has a flat section at the top of the shank that looks like a micro spade.
Top & Bottom
A term used for floats that are attached with a silicone rubber at the top and bottom of the float, e.g. stick and avon style floats.
A carbon process that sees it cured under extreme pressure to force out any tiny air imperfections from the sections. This creates a more consistent action and increases the strength in each section.
Waggler Float
A float that is attached to the line via an eye/ring at the bottom of the float, so it waggles about on the line.
X-Flex technology
This is used in the construction of certain rods to provide a smooth through action while allowing for the incorporation of a soft tip section as well as a super strong and powerful blank lower down, meaning you can both play the fish and more easily land those which are a little more resistant.
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